For the last three years, GCT has been funding research into the current status of Galapagos penguins (Spheniscus mendiculus) and flightless cormorants (Phalacrocorax harrisi) within the Galapagos Archipelago. The project is being led by Dr Gustavo Jimenez of the Charles Darwin Foundation (CDF) and has achieved some great insights so far regarding the two species’ current population trends and vulnerability to climate variation. In July this year, the team conducted the second project field trip this year. Here is a small account by Gustavo about the trip.
As we approached the end of the rocky shore the Galapagos penguins were awaiting our arrival in their elegant black tailcoats. It had been four months since our last trip and we were all excited to be back with the birds. Some approached us cautiously, others jumped into the water, but most appeared quite indifferent to our presence.
We were all on board the Queen Mabel for this seven day field trip. The team consisted of staff from both CDF and the Galapagos National Park Service and, having departed from Puerto Ayora on the island of Santa Cruz the previous evening, we arrived into Caleta Iguana on the southern coast of Isabela on the morning of July 16.
Searching along the rugged lava coastline we came across nests with eggs, chicks and adults. This was a great sign and reflected the fact that the conditions this year had been good for the penguins, the water remaining cool enough to provide an abundance of food. This is not always the case. During El Nino years the water temperatures can rise by several degrees, resulting in the penguins primary food source, sardines, moving away from the area to find cooler waters.
In the afternoon we drove around to the Marielas Islands off the west coast of Isabela which is home to the largest population of Galapagos penguins. At this site we went about catching individuals so that we could record size and weight, attach ID tags, and collect samples for genetic analysis. We tagged a total of 78 penguins during the trip, 37 of which we had recorded in previous trips. Using this mark-recapture technique allows us to make population size estimates and track trends which are backed up by an annual census that is carried out every September.
Flightless cormorants were next on the agenda. We visited three colonies around Punta Espinoza on Fernandina where we carried out similar catch and release sampling to the penguins. Forty-eight cormorants were caught in total, only 9 of which had not been previously recorded. This was a surprisingly low percentage of new individuals and could signify that the population size is decreasing, knowledge of which highlights the importance of carrying out such regular surveys.
Our last job was to collect the data recorded by special meteorological loggers which help us to understand the micro-climates in some areas. Once this was complete, the team returned home but will be back in December to carry out the final survey of the year.
GCT hopes to continue funding this research which is essential for the continuous management and conservation of these threatened species. As such, we will be running a Penguin Appeal later in the year. Please check back for updates.